Sunday, February 28, 2016

Osteoarthritis Review Series

Osteoarthritis Review Series

Osteoarthritis (OA)



Review Series by: Arlene Gentallan



Definition:

    • aka. degenerative joint disease
    • Marked by articular cartilage destruction
    • most prevalent type of arthritis
    • Types:
       · Idiopathic osteoarthritis
          - unknow cause
          - most common
          - may have a genetic link
       · Secondary osteoarthritis
          - Secondary to history of trauma / disease process



Etiology:

    • Inherited (family history of osteoarthritis)
    • Hormones
    • Aging
    • Obesity
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • History of joint and skelletal injury / inflammation
    • Chronic overuse of joint (like sports and work related usage)
    • Chronic use of drugs such as steroid



Sign and Symptoms:

    • Joint pain
       · frequently affects weight bearing joint
       · worsens with activity
       · relieves by rest
    • Limited range of motion
    • Osteophytes (bone spurs formation)
         • Bouchard nodes - bone spur formation on the distal interphalangeal joints
         • Heberden nodes - bone spur formation on the proximal interphalangeal joints
    • Crepitus



Diagnosis:
    • Presence of signs and symptoms characteristic of osteoarthritis
    • X-ray
         - reveals formation of osteophytes (bone spur) and narrowing of joint cavity



Treatment:
    • Weight loss (if overweight)
    • Exercise
    • Hot compress - promotes cartilage flexibility
    • Cold compress - reduces inflammation
    • Medications
         - Acetaminophen - reduces joint pain
         - NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) - reduces joint pain and inflammation



Complications:
    • Permanent joint immobility
    • Disfiguring deformity



Facts:
    • Articular cartilage - cartilage that covers and protects the end of long bones
    • Our knee bears 6 times our body weight when we walk
    • Our hip bears 3 times our body weight when we walk



Legend: